SOIL MANAGEMENT

When unfair trade is also at home: the economic sustainability of coffee farms

This paper addresses the issue of unfair trade practices, investigating the drivers of the differences between farm-gate and free-on-board (FOB) prices in the most important Arabica coffee producing countries worldwide: Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Honduras, Peru, and Ethiopia. Our study looks at those differences taking into account the literature on governance in agri-food chains, with a focus on each country’s domestic market. We performed panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) estimates in ICO and World Bank data, covering the period from 2007 to 2016. In the paper we analyze (i) property rights as a proxy of transaction costs, once it brings more transparency and support to negotiations; (ii) access to electricity as a proxy of supporting infrastructure in communication and information activities, and (iii) quality of roads and quality of ports as proxies of transportation infrastructure. Our results show that heterogeneity in institutions and infrastructure are key in explaining the differences between farm-gate and FOB prices. The transaction costs derived from institutional failures and infrastructure gaps, lead to the use of intermediaries in the coffee supply chain, and this reduces the margin for coffee farmers. Actions that aim to reduce these inefficiencies bring more transparency and lower transaction costs, thereby directly contributing to the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

farm gate prices, FOB Prices, unfair trading, coffee, specialty coffee

Jan 01, 2021

Lerner, et. al

A christmas coffee story

Legends and myth. Apocrypha and simple fictions. It’s that time of year. Coffee has at least one oft-told holiday story and it, too, is a combination of fact and fabrication, or things we just don’t know to be true.

If you want to take the long way around, and we do, our story begins but does not end with John Arbuckle, a man who it seems to me would be happy enough if remembered as a coffee roaster and not much more. But he was much more. He was a philanthropist, innovative entrepreneur, “trust buster,” and inventor. He held several patents on coffee roasters and improvements to the coffee roasting process. He held a patent, appropriately, on a method for fireproofing buildings. He also, it is worth mentioning, invented mittens that included a tube so you could blow warm air from your mouth directly onto your fingers. The last patent he applied for was a method for raising sunken ships, a method so significant in its design that even 60 years later subsequent patent applicants for similar procedures were obliged to cite Arbuckle’s work. That ship lifting patent was approved, but not until after his death in 1912. But we’re getting ahead of ourselves. We’ve killed him already and he hasn’t even been born yet.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

coffee story, coffee blog, olam specialty coffee

Dec 01, 2020

Ferguson, M.

Coffee value chain analysis
Opportunities for youth employment in Uganda

Uganda, like other sub-Saharan African countries, continues to experience increasing levels
of youth unemployment in view of its rapid population growth in recent decades. Such a
trend exerts mounting pressures on the overall capacity of the national economy to generate
adequate numbers of decent jobs to absorb the working age population.
The country depends on agriculture as a source of livelihood and foreign exchange earnings.
The country’s 2015/16–2019/20 Agriculture Sector Strategic Plan identified coffee as one
of the 15 priority commodities that the Government of Uganda is focusing on to promote
growth, development and employment creation.
In its effort to support the Government to enhance youth employment in agriculture, in
2018 FAO launched a selection process to identify the value chain with the greatest potential
to boost youth employment. Based on considerations of economic and socio-political
feasibility, as well as overall sustainability considerations, national youth and agriculture
stakeholders have decided on pursuing actions in the coffee value chain.
This study was therefore commissioned to analyse the coffee value chain and identify
constraints and opportunities for youth employment. It also aimed at suggesting upgrading
options and policy actions that could realize the potential for creating and enhancing youth
employment in the coffee sub-sector.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

sustainability, gender equity, coffee value chain analysis,

Dec 01, 2020

Mwesigye, F., Nguyen, H.

Coffee, Consumers, & COVID-19: Road Map to Recovery

While businesses and supply chains have worked to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic’s extraordinary challenges, little concrete data has been available to aid in understanding consumers’ needs, making it difficult for many in our industry to plan for the future. To meet this need, the NCA commissioned an exclusive COVID-19 supplement to our yearly National Coffee Data Trends (NCDT) market research series.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

covid-19, corona, coffee, coffee consumers, specialty coffee

Dec 01, 2020

National Coffee Association USA

The key coffee industry trends for 2021 & beyond

Popular with consumers around the world and supporting numerous developing nations as one of their key commodities, the coffee industry is both valuable and – up to the beginning of 2020 – expanding.
However with Covid-19 slowing both production and demand, and disrupting the global supply chain, the global coffee industry has stalled in recent months – and seen new trends take hold.
Here’s our summary of the key factors set to affect the coffee industry in 2021 and beyond.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

global coffee market, coffee industry, coffee industry trends, coffee trends, coffee market, specialty coffee, 2021 coffee trends

Oct 29, 2020

Roughan, G.

Coffee buying and sustainability in cafés in helsinki

There are not many things done repeatedly day after day, but drinking coffee is one of
them. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world and essential part of daily
life to many. Cafés are visited for different reasons, whether to work or socialise, but often
a cup of coffee is enjoyed on side. Cafés aim to ensure good coffee for their customers.
Though, farming that brewed cup of coffee requires a significant amount of resources.
Environmental sustainability is perhaps one of the most pressing issues in the modern
world. Increase in environmental efforts on the commercial stage leads people to expect
cafés too to take sustainability seriously.
This thesis focuses on the final phase of the value chain of coffee, consumption, with a
focus on the coffee buying process of cafés. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what
factors have an effect on the decisions cafés in Helsinki make about the coffee they buy. In
this thesis, coffee buying is viewed as the action of cafés buying coffee from a roastery.
The thesis examines the decisions made by the person in charge of buying coffee in a café
and is limited to cafés located in the capital city of Finland. The objective is to determine
the main factors that influence the buying of coffee in cafés located in Helsinki, and the
research question and investigative questions are created based on this objective. The
investigative questions aim to find out the criteria set for the bought coffee, the thoughts on
the future of coffee and the sustainable operations in and outside of coffee buying in the
selected cafés.
Two major topics, coffee and sustainability, are addressed in the literature review. The
theory helps to describe the key concerns related to the cultivation and purchase of coffee.
This thesis uses the qualitative approach of data collection, in the form of semi-structured
interviews. In total of five interviews were conducted during April 2020. Together with
literature review, the interviews with the selected cafés prove that coffee buying should be
done with sustainability in mind.
The interview findings show that importance of good coffee and sustainable actions as part
of business are evident. The views on sustainability and actions taken differ between
cafés. The cafés all find it important to buy coffee that tastes good and is of good quality.
The findings reveal that all cafés buy their coffee from a roastery and trust the roastery to
offer them best possible coffee. Though, the research showed that the taste is not the only
important thing to keep in mind. Availability of coffee at the time the coffee is bought is also
considered important. Also, for every coffee purchase the cafés make, they cast a vote for
environmental sustainability, for labour conditions and global justice. The research made it
relatively clear that the majority of Finnish consumers are not too interested in the quality,
taste, origin or sustainability of coffee. These four factors mentioned, however, greatly
influence the decisions related to coffee buying in cafés

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

Café, Coffee Buying, Coffee, Sustainability, Corporate Sustainability

Oct 09, 2020

Risthonka, L.

Impacts of quaker beans over sensory characteristics and volatile composition of specialty natural coffees

The objective of this study was to evaluate the volatile composition and the sensory effect of the presence of Quaker beans in natural specialty coffee beverage and, consequently, to confront the requirement of the Specialty Coffee Association regarding the total absence of Quaker beans in a natural specialty coffee batch. Sensory analysis and volatile composition were performed for three different colorations of Quaker beans, added separately to natural specialty coffee samples at seven different concentrations. Beans with color equal to or above Agtron 82.8 negatively affected the sensory characteristics of natural specialty coffee only from the presence of 7 Quaker beans in one cup (65 beans). Through the analysis of volatile composition, volatile compounds formed during roasting were identified in Quaker beans from precursors present in raw immature beans. Therefore, the color and sensory characteristics of Quaker are a consequence of the chemical composition of an immature bean.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

coffeea arabica, coffee, arabica, roasted coffee, quakers

Oct 06, 2020

Sances Rabelo, M.H. et al.

Brew temperature, at fixed brew strength and extraction, has little impact on the sensory profile of drip brew coffee

The brew temperature is widely considered a key parameter affecting the final quality of coffee, with a temperature near 93 °C often described as optimal. In particular, drip brewers that do not achieve a minimum brew temperature of 92 °C within a prescribed time period fail their certification. There is little empirical evidence in terms of rigorous sensory descriptive analysis or consumer preference testing, however, to support any particular range of brew temperatures. In this study, we drip-brewed coffee to specific brew strengths, as measured by total dissolved solids (TDS), and extraction yields, as measured by percent extraction (PE), spanning the range of the classic Coffee Brewing Control Chart. Three separate brew temperatures of 87 °C, 90 °C, or 93 °C were tested, adjusting the grind size and overall brew time as necessary to achieve the target TDS and PE. Although the TDS and PE both significantly affected the sensory profile of the coffee, surprisingly the brew temperature had no appreciable impact. We conclude that brew temperature should be considered as only one of several parameters that affect the extraction dynamics, and that ultimately the sensory profile is governed by differences in TDS and PE rather than the brew temperature, at least over the range of temperatures tested.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

brew temperature, extraction, tds, total dissolved solids, control chart, coffee, chemistry, sustainability, brewing, pourover, barista

Oct 05, 2020

Batali, M., Ristenpart, W., Guinard, J.X.

The impact of milk in your coffee - the good and the bad

How does your favorite Barista create your Cafee Latte or your Flat White? Yes, it's a known fact that drinking black is a much healthier option but sometimes drinking coffee with milk just tastes awesome. Whichever way we like it, adding milk in our coffee does give texture and softens the bitterness in coffee.
Properly steamed microfoam brings out the natural sweetness that milk offers into your cup of coffee.

Let's read what's the impact of milk in our coffee - the good and the bad.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

milk, coffee, cafe latte, latte, microfoam, health benefits, specialty coffee

Oct 01, 2020

Coffee Science Org

Climate risks to Brazilian coffee production

Brazil is the world's leading coffee exporter, contributing billions of dollars to the global food economy. Yet, a majority of Brazilian coffee farms are operated by 'smallholders', producers with relatively small properties and primarily reliant on family labor. While previous work indicates that climate change will decrease the area suitable for coffee production in Brazil, no study has assessed the impacts of climate change on coffee yields or the relative exposure and vulnerability of coffee producing regions to changes in climate hazards (climate-associated losses in yield). To address these knowledge gaps, we assess the sensitivity of coffee yields to temperature and precipitation variation from 1974 to 2017 to map coffee climate hazards. Next, we identify which coffee producing regions in Brazil have the highest exposure to climate hazards due to high dependence of coffee production as a proportion of agricultural area. Finally, we generate a Vulnerability Index to identify which regions are theoretically least able to adapt to climate hazards. Our study finds that since 1974, temperatures in Brazilian coffee growing municipalities have been increasing by ~0.25 °C per decade and annual precipitation has been decreasing during the blooming and ripening periods. This historical climate change has already resulted in reductions in coffee yield by more than 20% in the Southeast of Brazil. Minas Gerais, the largest coffee producing state in Brazil, has among the highest climate hazard and overall climate risk, exacerbated by ongoing coffee expansion. Additionally, many municipalities with the lowest adaptive capacity, including the country's mountainous regions, also have high climate exposure and hazards. Negative climate hazard and exposure impacts for coffee producing regions could be potentially offset by targeting climate adaptation support to these high-risk regions, including research, extension, and credit subsidies for improved coffee varieties, irrigation, and agroforestry and diversifying agricultural production.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

climate risks, coffee production, Brazil, climate change, coffee production. sustainability, coffee

Sep 21, 2020

koh, et. al

Treatment of coffee processing wastewater using Moringa stenopetala seed powder: Removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand

In Ethiopia, the wastewater generated from coffee processing industries is often directly discharged to the river due to lack of monitoring facilities. This resulting in water contamination causing risks to entire ecological system and human well-being of the society needs an urgent attention by the environment specialists. Hence, the current research is aimed to investigate the potential of Moringa stenopetala seed powder for the improvement of physicochemical and bacteriological load of coffee processing wastewater. The optimization of adsorbent dose and contact time on the reduction of turbidity and COD were done by the standard method. The Moringa stenopetala seeds were collected from Dilla University campus and ground to fine powder. The obtained powder was characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer and wastewater was collected from coffee processing site. The SEM and XRD results revealed that Moringa stenopetala seed powder having an amorphous morphology for retention of impurity load. After treatment with this seed powder, the physicochemical and biological quality of the wastewater was significantly improved and there is a 99.43% and 99.16% reduction of turbidity and COD were reached respectively at adsorbent dose of 80 mg L−1 and contact time of 60 min and 45 min respectively. This current research proved that Moringa stenopetala seed powder has a promising potential to improve physicochemical and biological quality of wastewater. Adopting this system can be economically, environmentally, and socially feasible to address wastewater problems. Further research on surface modification of this adsorbent is needed to enhance its removal efficiency.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

absorption, moringa, stenopetala, removal of COD and turbidity, wastewater treament, specialty coffee, ethiopia, coffee, sustainabilty, farm management

Sep 14, 2020

Fereja, et al.

Climate risks to Brazilian coffee production

Brazil is the world's leading coffee exporter, contributing billions of dollars to the global food economy. Yet, a majority of Brazilian coffee farms are operated by 'smallholders', producers with relatively small properties and primarily reliant on family labor. While previous work indicates that climate change will decrease the area suitable for coffee production in Brazil, no study has assessed the impacts of climate change on coffee yields or the relative exposure and vulnerability of coffee producing regions to changes in climate hazards (climate-associated losses in yield). To address these knowledge gaps, we assess the sensitivity of coffee yields to temperature and precipitation variation from 1974 to 2017 to map coffee climate hazards. Next, we identify which coffee producing regions in Brazil have the highest exposure to climate hazards due to high dependence of coffee production as a proportion of agricultural area. Finally, we generate a Vulnerability Index to identify which regions are theoretically least able to adapt to climate hazards. Our study finds that since 1974, temperatures in Brazilian coffee growing municipalities have been increasing by ~0.25 °C per decade and annual precipitation has been decreasing during the blooming and ripening periods. This historical climate change has already resulted in reductions in coffee yield by more than 20% in the Southeast of Brazil. Minas Gerais, the largest coffee producing state in Brazil, has among the highest climate hazard and overall climate risk, exacerbated by ongoing coffee expansion. Additionally, many municipalities with the lowest adaptive capacity, including the country's mountainous regions, also have high climate exposure and hazards. Negative climate hazard and exposure impacts for coffee producing regions could be potentially offset by targeting climate adaptation support to these high-risk regions, including research, extension, and credit subsidies for improved coffee varieties, irrigation, and agroforestry and diversifying agricultural production.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

brazil, climate change, specialty coffee, coffee production, coffee processing, brazil coffee

Sep 01, 2020

Koh, I., Garrett, R., Janetos, A., Mueller, N.

Coffee flavor: a review

Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and aspects such as environment, processing, and preparation that influence flavor. This summary of research studies employed sensory analysis (either descriptive and discrimination testing and or consumer testing) and chemical analysis to determine the impact aspects on coffee flavor.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

coffee flavor, processing, preparation, emotion, environment, consumer acceptance

07/08/2020

Seninde, D. R., Chambers IV, E.

Impact of COVID-19 on the global coffee sector: Survey of ICO exporting Members

This report presents results from a survey launched by the Internal Coffee Organisation (ICO) in May 2020 and directed to 16 exporting countries. Responses were provided by representatives to the ICO and other organisations which shared their perspectives on the local situation caused by COVID-19. The first section presents the impact of the pandemic on the coffee sector, assessing that 80% of the countries had implemented risk-management measures, such as social distancing. According to the report, even though not all the countries felt particularly affected by the measures, criticalities arose in countries starting the harvest season, due to lack of labour and employment. A decrease in income and access to finance has also been highly reported. Finally, on a local level consumption has shifted to e-commerce and delivery. In the second section, the report presents some projections on the impact of COVID-19 on the long-term sustainability of the sector indicating negative and positive factors. The last section includes the policies and support measures that the different government implemented to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on the coffee sector. This report is particularly interesting for professionals looking at future projections of COVID-19 impact on exporting countries.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

COVID-19, coffee production, farmers, export

6/1/2020

International Coffee Organisation

Colour and shape of design elements of the packaging labels influence consumer expectations and hedonic judgments of specialty coffee

Packaging plays an important role on attracting the consumers’ attention and creating hedonic and sensory expectations, which may affect actual product experience. The present study aimed at investigating whether the colour and/or shape of design elements of packaging labels would influence sensory and hedonic judgments of specialty coffee by amateur consumers. Participants (n = 174) first evaluated their expectations of coffee acidity and sweetness by looking at the coffee package, and subsequently, their experience of the same attributes when tasting a cup of coffee, in addition to rating their liking and purchase intent. The experiment followed a 2 × 2, between-subject design for label type (green or pink, round or angular), and the same coffee was served to all participants. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted in order to assess main effects of colour and shape of the design elements of the packaging labels as well as interactions on sensory and hedonic ratings. Both colour and shape significantly affected consumers’ sensory expectations (pre-tasting ratings) regarding the specialty coffee, but they had no significant effect on post-tasting (actual perception) sensory ratings. Interactions between colour × shape were found to affect the hedonic measures. The coffee associated with the congruent labels (i.e., angular/green or the round/pink) received higher liking and purchase intent ratings than the one associated with the incongruent labels (i.e., angular/pink and the round/green). The implications of these results for the design of coffee packaging that convey some functional benefit as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

Authors

Publication Date

Keywords

specialty coffee, packaging, coffee,Packaging,Multisensory,Expectations,Crossmodal

Jul 01, 2020

de Souza, M.M. et al

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