Gender Equitable Service Provision in Coffee and Cocoa: The State of the Industry May 2021
As part of the Partnership for Gender Equity’s (PGE) exploration and support of gender-equitable practices in the coffee and cocoa sectors, the organization collaborated with Women Forward International, The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), and the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs to explore and map current practices in the sector. Over a period of four months in early 2021, the team of four Yale graduate students (Abby Cohen, Diana Johnson, Maya Saint Germain, and Robin Schmid) conducted desk research and interviews with coffee and cocoa stakeholders, focusing on 22 public, private, and nonprofit extension and advisory service providers. The team’s research is summarized below, highlighting key themes, challenges, and best practices among coffee and cocoa EAS providers with respect to gender equity integration and inclusion in their approach to producer training and capacity building. The report concludes with recommendations for how EAS providers and industry allies can strengthen their approaches to gender equity as it relates to service offerings. PGE also received recommendations, and the report closes with PGE's further commitments to foster greater gender equity within the coffee and cocoa industries.
Gender, equity, cocoa
The Partnership for Gender Equity
Development of biosorbent derived from the endocarp waste of gayo coffee for lead removal in liquid wastewater—effects of chemical activators
This study reports the development of bio-based adsorbent by utilizing coffee endocarp (CE) waste as a raw material for lead (Pb) removal from liquid wastewater. The effect of NaOH and HCl as activation precursors on the characteristics and performance of the resulting adsorbents was investigated.
endocarp, coffee wastewater, coffee sustainability
March 10, 2021
Mariana, M. et. al
Smallholder coffee productivity as affected by socioeconomic factors and technology adoption
Despite the increase in area under coffee in Kenya in the last decade, productivity has been on the decline. Numerous production technologies have been developed through on-station research but there has been limited on-farm research to assess the impact of these technologies at the farm level. On the other hand, smallholder farmers are endowed differently and this would positively or negatively affect the adoption of recommended technologies and hence coffee productivity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of socioeconomic factors and technology adoption on smallholder coffee productivity at the farm level. The study employed stratified random sampling where 376 farmers were randomly sampled from six cooperative societies which had been preselected using probability proportional to the size sampling technique. The effects of socioeconomic factors and technology adoption on coffee productivity were analyzed using the stochastic Cobb-Douglas production function. The study revealed that off-farm income, access to credit, type of land tenure, and land size had significant positive effects on coffee productivity. Therefore, coffee farmers should be encouraged to diversify their income sources and to embrace credit financing, as the government reviews land use policies to avail adequate agricultural land. The study further revealed that the adoption of recommended application rates of manure, fungicides, and pesticides had significant positive effects on coffee productivity. The adoption of these technologies should therefore be enhanced among small-scale farmers to improve coffee productivity at the farm level.
#sustaincoffee #makecoffeebetter #specialtycoffee #coffee #arabica #robusta #coffeeustainability #coffeeproduction #coffeeproductivity #coffeefarmer #socioeconomic #youngfarmer #technologyadoption
February 28, 2021
Wambua, D., et. al
Fostering a wildlife-friendly program for sustainable coffee farming: the case of small-holder farmers in indonesia
This paper discusses the global transition to sustainable and wildlife-friendly farming systems that protect ecosystem services while also providing economic equity in Java, Indonesia. Java is home to 60% of Indonesia’s population as well as many endemic species, and therefore the management of agriculture alongside human well-being and biodiversity is vital. The authors look at a community of 400 coffee farmers in West Java to assess the steps needed to develop a community-wide, wildlife-friendly program. An adaptive management approach through consultations and co-learning with stakeholder, researchers, and policy makers, was used to create a framework with common objectives. The expectations of the program were to see an increase in income and an increase in coffee quality, but that there would also be implementation challenges. The quality of the coffee plantations were assessed before and after the implementation of program, finding that coffee quality was significantly improved through efforts that converted farms to organic. The benefit of this method is that wildlife-friendly farming areas contain much higher biodiversity than intensive farming areas. However, not as biodiverse as natural ecosystems. Further success will depend on farmers keeping constant involvement in their understanding of long-term sustainability or at least until farmer are able to receive a premium price for their coffee.
organic, land sharing, adaptive management, certification, agroforestry, conservation evidence, implementation
Jan 27, 2021
Campera,M.;Budiadi,B.; Adinda, E.; Ahmad, N.; Balestri, M.; Hedger, K.; Imron, M.A.; Manson, S.; Nijman, V.; Nekaris, K.A.I.
When unfair trade is also at home: the economic sustainability of coffee farms
This paper addresses the issue of unfair trade practices, investigating the drivers of the differences between farm-gate and free-on-board (FOB) prices in the most important Arabica coffee producing countries worldwide: Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Honduras, Peru, and Ethiopia. Our study looks at those differences taking into account the literature on governance in agri-food chains, with a focus on each country’s domestic market. We performed panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) estimates in ICO and World Bank data, covering the period from 2007 to 2016. In the paper we analyze (i) property rights as a proxy of transaction costs, once it brings more transparency and support to negotiations; (ii) access to electricity as a proxy of supporting infrastructure in communication and information activities, and (iii) quality of roads and quality of ports as proxies of transportation infrastructure. Our results show that heterogeneity in institutions and infrastructure are key in explaining the differences between farm-gate and FOB prices. The transaction costs derived from institutional failures and infrastructure gaps, lead to the use of intermediaries in the coffee supply chain, and this reduces the margin for coffee farmers. Actions that aim to reduce these inefficiencies bring more transparency and lower transaction costs, thereby directly contributing to the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
farm gate prices, FOB Prices, unfair trading, coffee, specialty coffee
Jan 01, 2021
Lerner, et. al
Climate-smart agriculture implementation facing climate variability and uncertainty in the coffee farming system
Coffee crops are susceptible to climate change. Coffee agribusiness is demanded to respond to the
increasing need for Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA). As a CSA model, coffee cattle integration offers
farmers risk management strategies and options to adapt to climate change. Issues about GAP, soil
management, water management, and ecological objectives can be addressed well in Integrated Crop
Livestock Systems. Constraints in adopting coffee cattle integration as CSA practices are related to
production input, labor, knowledge, technology, capital, and farmer institution. Strategies for
implementing coffee cattle integration as a CSA practice is carried out in a hierarchical stage. It starts
with developing a support system to improve agricultural support policies, promote public-private
partnerships, and support community assistance and facilitation center, followed by the increasing
availability of capital through credit farm.
Climate-smart agriculture, climate change, public-private partnerships, community assistance, coffee cattle
Djufry, F. & Wulandar, S.
The potential of carbon neutral labeling to engage coffee consumers in climate change mitigation
Carbon neutral labeling of food products is a market-based approach to reduce carbon footprints in the agri-food sector. To better understand consumers’ preferences and attitudes towards a carbon neutral label on globally traded agri-food products, the willingness to pay (WTP) of German consumers for a carbon neutral label on specialty coffee was examined. A discrete choice experiment was conducted in Germany, where coffee is often sold with multiple labels or claims, in order to examine the WTP for alternative combinations of a carbon neutral label with either a Fair Trade label or a claim of direct trade coffee sourcing. Choice data were analyzed using random parameter logit models which determined a positive WTP for the carbon neutral label. This estimate exceeds the corresponding marginal costs of certification and the marginal social cost of carbon, yet it is relatively lower than the estimated WTP for the Fair Trade label and the direct trade claim. A positive synergy effect on utility was also determined for the combination of a carbon neutral label and a direct trade claim. If no additional information was provided, consumers often perceived coffee as a “natural product” that does not generate any greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, awareness-building policies are needed to make carbon neutral labels an effective market-based tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agri-food sector.
carbon neutra label, coffee value chain, certification, climate change mitigation, agrifood sector
January 1, 2021
Birkenberg, A., Narjes, M.E., Weinmann, B., Birner, R.
A christmas coffee story
Legends and myth. Apocrypha and simple fictions. It’s that time of year. Coffee has at least one oft-told holiday story and it, too, is a combination of fact and fabrication, or things we just don’t know to be true.
If you want to take the long way around, and we do, our story begins but does not end with John Arbuckle, a man who it seems to me would be happy enough if remembered as a coffee roaster and not much more. But he was much more. He was a philanthropist, innovative entrepreneur, “trust buster,” and inventor. He held several patents on coffee roasters and improvements to the coffee roasting process. He held a patent, appropriately, on a method for fireproofing buildings. He also, it is worth mentioning, invented mittens that included a tube so you could blow warm air from your mouth directly onto your fingers. The last patent he applied for was a method for raising sunken ships, a method so significant in its design that even 60 years later subsequent patent applicants for similar procedures were obliged to cite Arbuckle’s work. That ship lifting patent was approved, but not until after his death in 1912. But we’re getting ahead of ourselves. We’ve killed him already and he hasn’t even been born yet.
coffee story, coffee blog, olam specialty coffee
Dec 01, 2020
Coffee value chain analysis
Opportunities for youth employment in Uganda
Uganda, like other sub-Saharan African countries, continues to experience increasing levels
of youth unemployment in view of its rapid population growth in recent decades. Such a
trend exerts mounting pressures on the overall capacity of the national economy to generate
adequate numbers of decent jobs to absorb the working age population.
The country depends on agriculture as a source of livelihood and foreign exchange earnings.
The country’s 2015/16–2019/20 Agriculture Sector Strategic Plan identified coffee as one
of the 15 priority commodities that the Government of Uganda is focusing on to promote
growth, development and employment creation.
In its effort to support the Government to enhance youth employment in agriculture, in
2018 FAO launched a selection process to identify the value chain with the greatest potential
to boost youth employment. Based on considerations of economic and socio-political
feasibility, as well as overall sustainability considerations, national youth and agriculture
stakeholders have decided on pursuing actions in the coffee value chain.
This study was therefore commissioned to analyse the coffee value chain and identify
constraints and opportunities for youth employment. It also aimed at suggesting upgrading
options and policy actions that could realize the potential for creating and enhancing youth
employment in the coffee sub-sector.
sustainability, gender equity, coffee value chain analysis,
Dec 01, 2020
Mwesigye, F., Nguyen, H.
Coffee, Consumers, & COVID-19: Road Map to Recovery
While businesses and supply chains have worked to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic’s extraordinary challenges, little concrete data has been available to aid in understanding consumers’ needs, making it difficult for many in our industry to plan for the future. To meet this need, the NCA commissioned an exclusive COVID-19 supplement to our yearly National Coffee Data Trends (NCDT) market research series.
covid-19, corona, coffee, coffee consumers, specialty coffee
Dec 01, 2020
National Coffee Association USA
Case study: coffee wild species and cultivars
Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) are the two primary cultivated species of Coffee. However, there are many other Coffea species that have not yet been evaluated that can offer traits useful for future breeding programs to ensure sustainability of the crop.
Wild coffee species have desirable traits that could be incorporated into Arabica and Robusta coffee cultivars. Genebanks provide access to both cultivars and wild species for breeding programs and to determine preferred cultivars for diverse growing conditions
cultivars, species, wild, coffea arabica, coffee canephora
December 1, 2020
Colorado State University
The key coffee industry trends for 2021 & beyond
Popular with consumers around the world and supporting numerous developing nations as one of their key commodities, the coffee industry is both valuable and – up to the beginning of 2020 – expanding.
However with Covid-19 slowing both production and demand, and disrupting the global supply chain, the global coffee industry has stalled in recent months – and seen new trends take hold.
Here’s our summary of the key factors set to affect the coffee industry in 2021 and beyond.
global coffee market, coffee industry, coffee industry trends, coffee trends, coffee market, specialty coffee, 2021 coffee trends
Oct 29, 2020
Coffee buying and sustainability in cafés in helsinki
There are not many things done repeatedly day after day, but drinking coffee is one of
them. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world and essential part of daily
life to many. Cafés are visited for different reasons, whether to work or socialise, but often
a cup of coffee is enjoyed on side. Cafés aim to ensure good coffee for their customers.
Though, farming that brewed cup of coffee requires a significant amount of resources.
Environmental sustainability is perhaps one of the most pressing issues in the modern
world. Increase in environmental efforts on the commercial stage leads people to expect
cafés too to take sustainability seriously.
This thesis focuses on the final phase of the value chain of coffee, consumption, with a
focus on the coffee buying process of cafés. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what
factors have an effect on the decisions cafés in Helsinki make about the coffee they buy. In
this thesis, coffee buying is viewed as the action of cafés buying coffee from a roastery.
The thesis examines the decisions made by the person in charge of buying coffee in a café
and is limited to cafés located in the capital city of Finland. The objective is to determine
the main factors that influence the buying of coffee in cafés located in Helsinki, and the
research question and investigative questions are created based on this objective. The
investigative questions aim to find out the criteria set for the bought coffee, the thoughts on
the future of coffee and the sustainable operations in and outside of coffee buying in the
Two major topics, coffee and sustainability, are addressed in the literature review. The
theory helps to describe the key concerns related to the cultivation and purchase of coffee.
This thesis uses the qualitative approach of data collection, in the form of semi-structured
interviews. In total of five interviews were conducted during April 2020. Together with
literature review, the interviews with the selected cafés prove that coffee buying should be
done with sustainability in mind.
The interview findings show that importance of good coffee and sustainable actions as part
of business are evident. The views on sustainability and actions taken differ between
cafés. The cafés all find it important to buy coffee that tastes good and is of good quality.
The findings reveal that all cafés buy their coffee from a roastery and trust the roastery to
offer them best possible coffee. Though, the research showed that the taste is not the only
important thing to keep in mind. Availability of coffee at the time the coffee is bought is also
considered important. Also, for every coffee purchase the cafés make, they cast a vote for
environmental sustainability, for labour conditions and global justice. The research made it
relatively clear that the majority of Finnish consumers are not too interested in the quality,
taste, origin or sustainability of coffee. These four factors mentioned, however, greatly
influence the decisions related to coffee buying in cafés
Café, Coffee Buying, Coffee, Sustainability, Corporate Sustainability
Oct 09, 2020
Impacts of quaker beans over sensory characteristics and volatile composition of specialty natural coffees
The objective of this study was to evaluate the volatile composition and the sensory effect of the presence of Quaker beans in natural specialty coffee beverage and, consequently, to confront the requirement of the Specialty Coffee Association regarding the total absence of Quaker beans in a natural specialty coffee batch. Sensory analysis and volatile composition were performed for three different colorations of Quaker beans, added separately to natural specialty coffee samples at seven different concentrations. Beans with color equal to or above Agtron 82.8 negatively affected the sensory characteristics of natural specialty coffee only from the presence of 7 Quaker beans in one cup (65 beans). Through the analysis of volatile composition, volatile compounds formed during roasting were identified in Quaker beans from precursors present in raw immature beans. Therefore, the color and sensory characteristics of Quaker are a consequence of the chemical composition of an immature bean.
coffeea arabica, coffee, arabica, roasted coffee, quakers
Oct 06, 2020
Sances Rabelo, M.H. et al.
Brew temperature, at fixed brew strength and extraction, has little impact on the sensory profile of drip brew coffee
The brew temperature is widely considered a key parameter affecting the final quality of coffee, with a temperature near 93 °C often described as optimal. In particular, drip brewers that do not achieve a minimum brew temperature of 92 °C within a prescribed time period fail their certification. There is little empirical evidence in terms of rigorous sensory descriptive analysis or consumer preference testing, however, to support any particular range of brew temperatures. In this study, we drip-brewed coffee to specific brew strengths, as measured by total dissolved solids (TDS), and extraction yields, as measured by percent extraction (PE), spanning the range of the classic Coffee Brewing Control Chart. Three separate brew temperatures of 87 °C, 90 °C, or 93 °C were tested, adjusting the grind size and overall brew time as necessary to achieve the target TDS and PE. Although the TDS and PE both significantly affected the sensory profile of the coffee, surprisingly the brew temperature had no appreciable impact. We conclude that brew temperature should be considered as only one of several parameters that affect the extraction dynamics, and that ultimately the sensory profile is governed by differences in TDS and PE rather than the brew temperature, at least over the range of temperatures tested.
brew temperature, extraction, tds, total dissolved solids, control chart, coffee, chemistry, sustainability, brewing, pourover, barista
Oct 05, 2020
Batali, M., Ristenpart, W., Guinard, J.X.