WATER MANAGEMENT

Extraction and characterization of coffee husk biodiesel and investigation of its effect on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics in a diesel engine

Biodiesel and its blends with diesel are used in engines to overcome the problems of environmental pollution and fast depletion of conventional fuels. The purpose of this research is to extract oil from coffee husk, convert it into coffee husk oil methyl ester (CHOME) by transesterification, and test the suitability of this biodiesel as an alternate, renewable, sustainable fuel for a diesel engine. The physicochemical characteristics of the developed biodiesel are studied and compared with regular diesel. The results showed that the fundamental properties of the produced fuel are comparable to that of diesel. The performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with CHOME biodiesel are investigated. The experiments are conducted in a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine at a constant speed by varying the loads (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for different biodiesel-diesel blends (B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, and B80), and the results are compared with the baseline diesel. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the blends, B10, B20, B30, and B50 dropped by 0.6, 0.7, 1.29, and 3%, respectively compared with the neat diesel. Similarly the brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) is reduced by 0.1, 0.3, 0.44, and 0.77% for B10, B20, B30, and B50, respectively. Exhaust gas emissions are reduced for all biodiesel-diesel blends. Compared to regular diesel, at full load, CO, HC, and smoke opacity of B30 reduced by 13.2%, 4%, and 12%, respectively. CO2 of B30 at full load is increased by 8.63%. In general, it can be stated that CHOME biodiesel is a promising alternate biodiesel that can be used in an internal combustion engine without major modifications.

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Keywords

Coffee husk biodiesel, Transesterification, Diesel engine, Combustion, Performance,Emission

3/24/2022

Emma, A., Alangar, S., Yadav, A.

How close do you like your coffee? - Examining proximity and its effects in relationship coffee models

Relationship coffee models are generally characterized by a shortened value chain and efforts to achieve social, economic, and environmental sustainability. In three case studies with farmers organized in cooperatives in Peru and buyers in Austria or Germany, we analyzed the proximity among the geographically distant value chain actors. This paper aims to provide a more nuanced perspective on relational (organizational, institutional, cognitive, and social) proximity in relationship coffee models. The comparative analysis of the proximities in our case studies revealed that initial face-to-face contacts are required to build further proximity dimensions. Proximate relationship coffee models have led to more recognition, pride, a good reputation of the actors, higher coffee quality and thus farm-gate prices, and stable long-term relationships. However, relationship coffees require more coordination and communication among chain actors and advanced farmer skills and efforts to produce high-quality coffee. In relationship coffee models, farmers still depend on buyers and roasters to benefit from higher quality of their green coffee.

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Keywords

Alternative food network, Proximity, Relationship coffee, Austria, Germany, Peru

3/5/2022

Edelmann, H., Quiñones-Ruiz, X., Penker, M.

Coffee Leaf Rust (Hemileia vastatrix) from the Recent Invasion into Hawaii Shares a Genotypic Relationship with Latin American Populations

Hawaii has long been one of the last coffee-producing regions of the world free of coffee leaf rust (CLR) disease, which is caused by the biotrophic fungus Hemileia vastatrix. However, CLR was detected in coffee farms and feral coffee on the island of Maui in February 2020 and subsequently on other islands of the Hawaiian archipelago. The source of the outbreak in Hawaii is not known, and CLR could have entered Hawaii from more than 50 coffee-producing nations that harbor the pathogen. To determine the source(s) of the Hawaii inoculum, we analyzed a set of eleven simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) generated from Hawaii isolates within a dataset of 434 CLR isolates collected from 17 countries spanning both old and new world populations, and then conducted a minimum spanning network (MSN) analysis to trace the most likely pathway that H. vastatrix could have taken to Hawaii. Forty-two multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of H. vastatrix were found in the global dataset, with all isolates from Hawaii assignable to MLG 10 or derived from it. MLG 10 is widespread in Central America and Jamaica, making this region the most probable source of inoculum for the outbreak in Hawaii. An examination of global weather patterns during the months preceding the introduction of CLR makes it unlikely that the pathogen was windborne to the islands. Likely scenarios for the introduction of CLR to Hawaii are the accidental introduction of spores or infected plant material by travelers or seasonal workers, or improperly fumigated coffee shipments originating from Central America or the Caribbean islands.

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Keywords

invasive diseases; plant pathogens; Pucciniales; rust fungi; tropical fungi

2/15/2022

Ramírez-Camejo, L., Keith, L., Matsumoto, T., Sugiyama, L., Fukada, M., Brann, M., Moffitt, A., Liu, J., Aime, M.

Development and Experiments on a Batch-Type Solar Roaster—An Innovative Decentralized System for Coffee Roasting

About 70% of the harvested coffee is exported to the industrialized nations for value addition due to lack of processing and logistic facilities in developing coffee producer countries, thus leaving behind a marginal economic return for the growers. This research was conducted to investigate the roasting capacity of an innovatively developed batch-type directly solar radiated roasting system for the decentralized processing of coffee using solar energy. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to design the experiments to optimize the coffee roasting process. Experimental results revealed that with an average solar direct normal irradiance (DNI) of 800 W/m2, the roaster was capable of roasting a batch of 2 kg coffee beans in 20, 23, and 25 min subjected to light roasts, medium roasts, and dark roasts, respectively at a drum speed of two revolutions per minute (rpm). The batch-type solar roaster has the capacity to roast 28.8–36 kg of coffee beans depending on dark to light roasting conditions on a clear sunny day with DNI ranging from 650 to 850 W/m2. The system thermal efficiency during coffee roasting was determined to be 62.2%, whereas the roasting efficiency at a corresponding light roast, medium roast, and dark roast was found to be 97.5%, 95.2%, and 91.3%, respectively. The payback period of the solar roaster unit was estimated to be 1038 working sunshine hours, making it viable for commercialization.

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Keywords

renewable energy; Scheffler concentrator reflector; batch-type solar roaster; response
surface methodology; coffee roasting

2/15/2022

Majeed, F., Raza, A., Munir, A., Hensel, O.

Local-adapted and high-yield varieties for sustainable Robusta coffee farming: Evidence from South Sumatera, Indonesia

Climate change causes an adverse impact on the coffee plantation as it directly influences the productivity and quality of coffee products. For the adaptation strategy, using superior variety is often considered an important step because it has potential attributes such as high yield and quality, and is more tolerant to certain environmental shocks. This study aims to analyze the environmental adaptability and financial feasibility of local Robusta coffee varieties. This study used data from field observations, surveys, and interviews of key informants in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatera, Indonesia from 2018-2021. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results showed that three local clones have high adaptability in the study site, even in a high precipitation rate. The varieties are financially feasible to be adopted by farmers, even though on a small scale. Sensitivity analysis with the scenario of decreasing the yield or increasing operational cost as the impact of climate variability about 10 percent showed the lower feasibility indicators (NPV, IRR, and Net B/C), but still higher than the minimum threshold so that still feasible and profitable for farmers. Hence, the three local clones are the potential to be developed for sustainable Robusta coffee plantations.

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Robusta coffee, local varieties, sustainability, financial feasibility

2/3/2022

Hasibuan, A., Randriani, E., Wicaksono, I., Santoso, D., Santoso, T.J.

Explaining the willingness of consumers to bring their own reusable coffee cups under the condition of monetary incentives

An increasing number of hospitality firms attempt to foster sustainable practices among their customers. Amongst these, incentives for customers to bring their own reusable products stand out. In this study, we first analyse whether consumers are willing to bring a reusable coffee cup (RCC) under the condition of a monetary incentive (qualitative decision) and the minimum discount required for individuals to be willing to use an RCC (quantitative decision). Second, we analyse the explanatory factors impacting these two decisions. Several factors are proposed to explain an individual's willingness to bring an RCC including their environmental knowledge and involvement, and personal restrictions for using an RCC. An empirical application, conducted on 1,371 individuals using a Heckit model, allows us to conduct a joint modelling and provide a novel methodological contribution to the study of the willingness, and barriers, of individuals towards the use of RCCs in the coffee shop industry.

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Environmental sustainability, Reusable products, Discount, Monetary incentive, Sustainable consumption

1/13/2022

Nicolaua, J., Stadlthanner, K., Andreu, L., Font, X.

Do connoisseur consumers care about sustainability? Exploring coffee consumption practices through netnography

The coffee industry has experienced two major trends: the development of connoisseur consumption of specialty coffee and the importance of sustainability. Despite the increasing concomitant relevance of both trends, literature on how sustainability has been interlacing with connoisseur consumption is rather limited. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse how connoisseur consumers (CC) integrate sustainability into their coffee consumption practices.

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Connoisseur consumers, Coffee, Sustainability, Social practice theory

1/7/2022

Bartoloni, S., Ietto, B., Pascucci, F.

Eco-labels matter: Coffee consumers value agrochemical-free attributes over biodiversity conservation

Sustainability certifications, or eco-labels, inform consumers about the environmental conservation attributes of a product and must be updated to accommodate advances in scientific knowledge and changes in market conditions. We evaluated the willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainability attributes of the Bird Friendly® coffee certification and found that coffee consumers value an agrochemical-free (e.g. organic) label over a biodiversity conservation label. We designed and implemented a choice experiment where consumers choose between conventional coffee and coffee with four sustainable attributes often listed on packages: organic, pesticide-free, shade-grown, and Bird Friendly. Consumers were willing to pay a premium of $2.20 per 12 oz for Bird Friendly coffee over a conventional coffee with no sustainable attributes. Premiums are higher for organic ($5.80) or pesticide-free coffee ($3.60), and lower for shade grown coffee ($1.40). Because consumers value agrochemical management relative to other features of biodiversity, our results suggest that ecolabels can maximize consumer interest by enforcing and promoting agrochemical standards, i.e. production without pesticides, in addition to the characteristics of preserving biodiversity.

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co-labels, Sustainability, Coffee, Willingness to pay, Organic, Biodiversity conservation

12/29/2021

Gatti, N., Gomez, M., Bennett, R., Sillett, T., Bowe, J.

Climate Change and Coffee Quality: Systematic Review on the Effects of Environmental and Management Variation on Secondary Metabolites and Sensory Attributes of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora

Climate change is impacting crop performance and agricultural systems around the world with implications for farmers and consumers. We carried out a systematic review to synthesize evidence regarding the effects of environmental factors associated with climate change and management conditions associated with climate adaptation on the crop quality of a culturally-relevant perennial crop, coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora). Seventy-three articles were identified that addressed the study's research question including 42 articles on environmental factors, 20 articles on management conditions, and 11 articles on both. While variation was found between studies, findings highlight that coffee quality is vulnerable to changes in light exposure, altitude, water stress, temperature, carbon dioxide, and nutrient management. Both increases as well as decreases were found in secondary metabolites and sensory attributes that determine coffee quality in response to shifts in environmental and management conditions. The most consistent evidence identified through this systematic review includes the following two trends: (1) increased altitude is associated with improved sensory attributes of coffee and; (2) increased light exposure is associated with decreased sensory attributes of coffee. Research gaps were found regarding the effects of shifts in carbon dioxide, water stress, and temperature on the directionality (increase, decrease, or non-linear) of coffee quality and how this varies with location, elevation, and management conditions. This systematic review further identified the following research needs: (1) long-term studies that examine the interactive effects of multiple environmental factors and management conditions on coffee quality; (2) studies that examine the interaction between sensory attributes and secondary metabolites that determine coffee quality and; (3) studies on the feasibility of various climate-adaptation strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change on coffee quality. Evidence-based innovations are needed to mitigate climate impacts on coffee quality toward enhanced sustainability and resilience of the coffee sector from farm to cup.

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climate change, sensory attributes, climate adaption, crop quality,

10/8/2021

Ahmed, S., Brinkley, S., Smith, E., Sela, A., Theisen, M., Thibodeau, C., Warne, T., Anderson, E., Van Dusen, N., Giuliano, P., Ionescu, K., Cash, S.

“A Very Noble Crop”: Financial Stability, Agronomic Expertise, and Personal Values Support Conservation in Shade-Grown Coffee Farms

Shade-grown coffee is an important reservoir for tropical biodiversity, but habitat quality hinges on decisions made by farmers. Our research aims to investigate the link between coffee producers’ decisions and outcomes for biodiversity, using epiphytes as our focal group. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed 33 producers in northern Nicaragua to understand how they connect trees and epiphytes on their farms to ecosystem services and how personal values, access to agronomic expertise, labor supply, and financial stability influence decision-making. We used interview responses to construct six producer typologies. Most producers had strong positive attitudes toward trees and associated them with a variety of important ecosystem services. Smallholders were more likely to connect trees with provisioning services, while producers on larger farms and with greater agronomic knowledge emphasized regulating services. Most producers connected epiphytes primarily with aesthetic values. Across demographics, producers emphasized the restorative potential for shade coffee in repairing damage to soil, water, and nutrient cycles caused by other forms of agriculture. The conservation significance and sustainability of this social-ecological system can be maintained and expanded through economic and capacity-building conservation interventions, especially when those can be connected to values already held by farmers.

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biodiversity conservation, bryophytes, ecosystem services, epiphytes, environmental
attitudes, environmental values, farmer typology, social-ecological systems

6/28/2021

Richards, J., Luna, I., Vargas, A.

New sustainable perspectives for “Coffee Wastewater” and other by-products: A critical review

Coffee sector has a tendency to increase consumption and fall in international coffee prices, as a commodity. There is a need for a strategy to minimize the impact of high costs for producing families and maintaining the competitiveness of the product. In this context, the proper disposal of “Coffee Wastewater” (CWW) can be an alternative, both to mitigate the environmental impact, if it is discarded without treatment, and to generate a source of extra income for coffee growers, when used in the food, pharmaceutical industry, or cosmetic. Proper management of CWW, as well as knowledge of its composition and toxicity, could help to identify solutions at the beginning of the processing chain, however, to date, there are no reports that have discussed CWW. In order to identify effective solutions for this, data covering economic, social and sustainable aspects were verified, focusing on trends in the use of coffee residues, which stimulate the investigation of a new sustainable by-product, which will enable the generation of extra income for coffee growers who have difficulty in bear production costs. The impact can vary between coffee producers and their waste, creating mitigation opportunities.

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coffee, coffee wastewater, Sustainability, Reuse

6/20/2021

Campos, R., Pinto, V., Melo, L., Soares da Rocha, S., Coimbra,J.

Gender Equitable Service Provision in Coffee and Cocoa: The State of the Industry May 2021

As part of the Partnership for Gender Equity’s (PGE) exploration and support of gender-equitable practices in the coffee and cocoa sectors, the organization collaborated with Women Forward International, The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), and the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs to explore and map current practices in the sector. Over a period of four months in early 2021, the team of four Yale graduate students (Abby Cohen, Diana Johnson, Maya Saint Germain, and Robin Schmid) conducted desk research and interviews with coffee and cocoa stakeholders, focusing on 22 public, private, and nonprofit extension and advisory service providers. The team’s research is summarized below, highlighting key themes, challenges, and best practices among coffee and cocoa EAS providers with respect to gender equity integration and inclusion in their approach to producer training and capacity building. The report concludes with recommendations for how EAS providers and industry allies can strengthen their approaches to gender equity as it relates to service offerings. PGE also received recommendations, and the report closes with PGE's further commitments to foster greater gender equity within the coffee and cocoa industries.

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Keywords

Gender, equity, cocoa

5/31/2021

The Partnership for Gender Equity

Connecting consumers to producers to foster sustainable consumption in international coffee supply – a marketing intervention study

Creating connections between consumers and producers (relational proximity) seems a promising approach to foster sustainable consumption behaviour in international food supply. In this intervention study, we tested three experiential marketing interventions to connect consumers to producers of an international community-supported agriculture (CSA) partnership for coffee (Teikei Coffee). Consumers recruited at a fair for sustainable products and lifestyles in Germany, (a) watched a promotional video about the coffee CSA, (b) attended a presentation of the coffee CSA, or (c) participated in a mindful tasting experience of the CSA coffee. Findings indicate that experiential marketing tools, to varying degrees, indeed create connections from consumers to producers, thereby fostering sustainable consumption behaviour. The findings can inform international food supply marketing efforts aimed at stimulating sustainable consumption.

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Experiential marketing, consumer behaviour, community-supported, agriculture (CSA), relational proximity, global food supply, sustainability marketing

3/15/2021

Weber, H., Loschelder, D., Lang, D., Wiek, A.

Development of biosorbent derived from the endocarp waste of gayo coffee for lead removal in liquid wastewater—effects of chemical activators

This study reports the development of bio-based adsorbent by utilizing coffee endocarp (CE) waste as a raw material for lead (Pb) removal from liquid wastewater. The effect of NaOH and HCl as activation precursors on the characteristics and performance of the resulting adsorbents was investigated.

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endocarp, coffee wastewater, coffee sustainability

10-Mar-21

Mariana, M. et. al

Smallholder coffee productivity as affected by socioeconomic factors and technology adoption

Despite the increase in area under coffee in Kenya in the last decade, productivity has been on the decline. Numerous production technologies have been developed through on-station research but there has been limited on-farm research to assess the impact of these technologies at the farm level. On the other hand, smallholder farmers are endowed differently and this would positively or negatively affect the adoption of recommended technologies and hence coffee productivity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of socioeconomic factors and technology adoption on smallholder coffee productivity at the farm level. The study employed stratified random sampling where 376 farmers were randomly sampled from six cooperative societies which had been preselected using probability proportional to the size sampling technique. The effects of socioeconomic factors and technology adoption on coffee productivity were analyzed using the stochastic Cobb-Douglas production function. The study revealed that off-farm income, access to credit, type of land tenure, and land size had significant positive effects on coffee productivity. Therefore, coffee farmers should be encouraged to diversify their income sources and to embrace credit financing, as the government reviews land use policies to avail adequate agricultural land. The study further revealed that the adoption of recommended application rates of manure, fungicides, and pesticides had significant positive effects on coffee productivity. The adoption of these technologies should therefore be enhanced among small-scale farmers to improve coffee productivity at the farm level.

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Keywords

#sustaincoffee #makecoffeebetter #specialtycoffee #coffee #arabica #robusta #coffeeustainability #coffeeproduction #coffeeproductivity #coffeefarmer #socioeconomic #youngfarmer #technologyadoption

28-Feb-21

Wambua, D., et. al